Political and bureaucratic corruption

Political and bureaucratic corruption

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QUESTION — What is the difference between political and bureaucratic corruption, in terms of their respective actors and effects? Which one of the two do you believe it is more problematic in a democracy? Explain your answer.
Note: In your essay you have to compare the attributes and the effects of the two types of corruption. Simply listing the characteristics of political and bureaucratic corruption without contrasting them is not enough. When addressing the second question, you must choose only one type of corruption, i.e., you should not argue that they are equally bad.

Please the following books most be used and also any others which writer sees relevant apart from the module’s readings, for this assignment you have to identify, consult and incorporate infor- mation from at least three additional outside sources.

BOOKS-
Heidenheimer and Johnston. 2002. Joseph S. Nye, “Corruption and Political Development: A Cost-Benefit Analysis”; James C. Scott,

“Corruption, Machine Politics and Political Change”; Eva Etzioni-Halevy, “Exchanging Material Benefits for Political Support: A Comparative Analysis”.
Johnston. 2005. Chapters 4-5.

Heidenheimer and Johnston. 2002. Nathaniel H. Leff, “Economic Development Through Bureau- cratic Corruption”; William L. Miller, Åse B. Grødeland, and Tatyana Koshechkina, “Bribery and Other Ways of Coping with Officialdom in Post-Communist Eastern Europe”; Paul D. Hutchcroft,

“The Politics of Privilege: Rents and Corruption in Asia”.
– Choi, Jin-Wook. 2007. “Governance Structure and Administrative Corruption in Japan: An Orga- nizational Network Approach”. Public Administration Review 67.

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