Short answers:

Short answers:
Respond in 3-7 sentences. 10 points each.

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1. What are the three examples that Kulick uses in his article "No" to illustrate how the word "no" has different meaning in distinct contexts. What is the main arguement of the article and what do the three examples intend to show?

2. What is the Arizona Tewa’s language ideology? Explain with at least two examples how Arizona Tewa implement or practice their language ideology? What does Kroskrity offer as an example of how ceremonial speech is misused by a tribal member?

3. What is a code? What is code-switching? Explain with an example from the semester’s readings. How does code-switching function? Please explain with examples the difference between cognates, borrowings, and loanwords in bilingualism and/or codeswitching.

4. How does Susan Phillip’s article (from last week) on the communicative competence of Indian students in eastern Oregon public schools relate to the example of AAVE use in Detroit public schools (hint: based on mother’s discrimination lawsuit in Do You Speak American: Up North)? What is the discriminatory aspect of both contexts? How does it relate to linguistic anthropology?

5. Discuss, with at least two examples, how language preservation and language rights are a mobilizing discourse among First Nation and Indigenous communities in Canada (Patrick). How does language use relate to political mobilization and land preservation and use among First Nations communities?

6. In what ways is the United States a "rape prone culture?" What films and readings from this course relate to the role of women in cases of gender violence? What steps need to be taken to arrive at a culture of consent in the United States?

7. Why are there fewer women in leadership positions worldwide? What is attributed to? Give at least two examples from course materials that support your assertion.

8. What is linguistic relativism? Provide three examples of articles, films, or lectures from this semester where linguistic relativism relates. Explain how and why it relates in each of these three examples.

9. How does the arbitrary nature of the linguistic sign (de Saussure) relate to Alim’s description of Hip Hop Nation Language? What is the relationship between ‘langue/parole’ and examples of non-standard usage of language, for example pidgin, patios, creole, HHNL, AAVE, Ebonics, Spanglish, Mock Spanish, Silence, etc?

10. How does Jane Hill explain Mock Spanish as covert racist discourse? What examples and terms does she use to describe this linguistic phenomenon? Relate this article to TWO others from the semester and explain how Hill’s work intersects with other authors we’ve read this semester
Essay Question:
Answer in 250 words.

Word limit: 250

According to Anthropology, what is language (10 pts)? What is culture (10 pts)? How are the two related (20 pts)? Give examples from course material (readings, lecture, or video) of how language and communication relate issues of gender (20 pts), ethnicity (20 pts), and power (20 pts).


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